Potentiometers are passive three-terminal electronics components. They act as an adjustable voltage divider. Potentiometers work by changing the position of sliding contact on a uniform resistance wire. The input supply is given across this wire and the output supply is taken across the fixed point and the sliding contact.
They are of two types, linear potentiometer, and rotary potentiometer. Their construction is different, but the working mechanisms are the same.
An ultrasonic sensor is a distance measuring sensor that uses ultrasound for measuring distance. There are two transducers used, one for sending ultrasound and the other for receiving it. The time between the signal sent and received help in determining the distance. This sensor is frequently used in many applications.
IR sensor detects the presence of infrared rays in its surrounding. There are 2 types of infrared sensors, active and passive. The active infrared sensor emits and detects infrared light. Therefore when there is any object which can absorb infrared light then the emitted rays do not return back to it and this way the sensor sense presence of the object. And passive sensor only detects the IR rays emitted from the body.
An accelerometer is an electromechanical sensor to measure the acceleration of the object in which it is used. By, determining the acceleration helps to measure the determine change in motion which might be because of inclination, vibration, etc.
Joystick controls the position of the object in 2d. It is mainly used in that application where we want a change in the position of the object in 2d. Such as a change in the pointer in games, change in position of a UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle). It uses 2 potentiometers in 2 respective axes to vary voltage so that the relative position of the object changes.
As the name suggests, a humidity sensor measures humidity in the environment and converts the finding into an electric signal which is interrupted by the microcontroller.
The light sensor converts light energy into electrical energy and detects the presence of light. Whenever in any application we require to detect the light and take necessary action we employ a light sensor.
The basics for some of the basic sensors are stated above. A detailed description of all these sensors and others will be provided very soon. By the term detailed it means, working, different types, their uses, and how to use them with Arduino.
If you are interested in Arduino projects, then you can buy an Arduino kit from the link provided below.